HERB AS FEED ADDITIVE AND FEED SUPPLEMENT TO INCREASE BRIEF EFFICIENCY AND HEALTH
Traditional medicinal herbs from natural ingredients of herbs have been used for generations by our ancestors to maintain stamina and treat some types of diseases. Traditional herb is often known as herbal medicine. Nowadays herbal medicine is not only used for humans only, but herbal medicine has started to be known among poultry farmers. They use some medicinal plants as traditional medicine for livestock as a substitute for factory-made drugs that are considered quite expensive, especially for middle-scale breeders down.
Since the monetary crisis to the present price of manufactured medicines perceived farmers are quite expensive. On the other hand, dose reduction or no administration of drugs, vitamins and vaccines in the maintenance of broiler chickens will cause a serious problem that is a decrease in health or even an increase in mortality. This will lead to a decrease in production so that no production standards are achieved. In addition to the price of drugs is quite expensive, the provision of drugs, antibiotics, hormones or vitamins in excessive broiler chickens feared will also affect the decline in the quality of meat, so that if consumed by humans continuously in the long term feared would be dangerous for his health.
The advantages and continuous use of drugs in the body can be a residue and little by little will be buried in the human body that can ultimately interfere with human health. From both of these reasons the breeder seeks to find another alternative as a substitute for factory-made drugs that is by utilizing some medicinal plants to be given to the livestock. Herbal medicine for these animals can be made by themselves at a relatively cheap price. The manner and rules of administration may be in the form of a solution mixed in drinking water or in the form of simplicia (flour) mixed into the ration as feed additive or feed supplement.
The purpose of feed additive in rations is to improve consumption, digestibility and endurance and reduce stress levels in broiler chickens. Additive feeds that are added generally use antibiotics. The use of antibiotics as feed additives results in residual carcass in broiler chickens. If chicken meat is consumed by humans then feared will become resistance to the antibiotic. This is different from the nature of herbal medicine, where herbal medicine for cattle is efficacious as feed additive and not an antibiotic, so not harmful to humans, even proven to increase consumption and appetite of broiler chickens.
Medicinal plants and their functions
Indonesia is known as a biodeversity country rich in flora and fauna. Several thousand types of medicinal plants exist in Indonesia. Indigenous medicinal plants of Indonesia are very potential to be used as additional feed ingredients (“feed supplement”) as well as “feed additives” mixed in drinking water. Some experts say that by giving some medicinal plants such as turmeric, garlic and papaya leaves mixed with poultry drinking water, can be avoided from bird flu disease. Besides, several other medicinal plants are efficacious to increase appetite such as temu lawak, galangal, ginger, kencur and aloe vera. While giving cat flour whiskers mixed in ransumnya known to facilitate the metabolism process in the chicken body so as to increase the growth and endurance of broiler chickens. According to Iin (2009) in Alex riana (2010) explains there are several medicinal plants that efficacious for chicken cattle, including:
Turmeric (Curcuma domestica), known as anti oxidant, anti microbial and anti-inflammatory. Turmeric contains essential oils of the monoterpen and sesquitterpen groups, yellow dye called kurkuminoid, protein, phosphorus, potassium, iron and vitamin C.
Ginger (Curcuma xanthorrhiza) can increase appetite, anti oxidant, anti microbial, anti cholesterol and anemia. Nutrients contained in temu lawak are kurkumin, kurkuminoid, mineral, essential oil, fat oil, carbohydrate and protein. Ginger and turmeric can be consumed in the form of beverages to prevent increased concentrations of cytokines in the body due to AI virus invasion with sub-type H5N1. This is effective, considering that the curcuma content present in both of them is potential as an inhibitor of cytokine synthesis
Giring (Curcuma heyneana), usually used for worm medicine
Temuireng (Curcuma aeruginosarhizome) is useful as a worm medicine and increases appetite. In temuireng contains many essential oils, tannins and kurkumenol.
Morinda citrifolia is an anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and deadly bacteria that cause infection. In this mengkudu contains terpenoid substances, anti-bacterial substances and scolopetin.
Aloe vera plant. Aloe vera has containemodin and scutellaria which function as antiviral. The material is capable of destroying the enzymes contained in the bird flu virus
Papaya leaf (Carica papaya, Linn). Papaya leaf is efficacious as an amoeba killer drug and as a worm medicine and help increase appetite.
Worm (lumbricus rubellus) is a very high protein source of 76%. The benefits of these worms are the presence of antibacterial and inhibit the growth of E. Colk bacteria, increase endurance, increase appetite, as drugs etc.
Chairman of the Indonesian Association of Veterinary Poultry says that in Indonesia itself is currently available quite a lot of herbal ingredients that can be used to ward off the spread of bird flu virus. Medicinal plants are aloe vera, temulawak, and turmeric. While Sri Sulandri (researcher from LIPI) said that the routine provision of livestock herbs consisting of turmeric, galangal, temulawak, kencur and mengkudu fruit given to poultry can serve as stamina is to nourish and increase appetite.
Benefits and Results
From the results of research and the opinion of experts concluded that the provision of medicinal herbs or medicinal plants are mixed both in feed rations and chicken drinking water can be useful or efficacious for (1). increase chicken endurance (2) increase chicken weight growth (3). reduce the mortality rate and the number of sick chickens (4) increase the farmer’s income (5). get the non-cholesterol chicken because the resulting fat is reduced (6). get a smelling chicken carcass and fresh color and (7) reduce the smell of chicken manure (ammonia). Other benefits are the price of herbal medicine is cheaper, maintain stamina, increase appetite, prevent and treat some diseases such as respiratory diseases (Snot and CRD), coccidiosis, diarrhea and green stools and avoiding avian from avian influenza virus (Avian Influenza / AI).
The benefits of herbal medicine for livestock have long been studied by several researchers. One was done by Mr. Sumadi, as a researcher and also as a lecturer at one university in Semarang. He composed a medicinal plant consisting of chili Javanese (Piper retrofractum Vahl), rhizomes extract (Curcuma xanthorriza Roxb), rhizome extracts (Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb), lempuyang fragrant powder (Zingiber aromaticum, Val), honey bees, sugar cane as natural preservatives, and water. The herb is given to the chicken as an antidote to avian influenza spread. In the test try, he put the dead chickens infected with bird flu around the cage. From the results of the test was found the chickens were given herbs results of his concoction turned out all the chickens that escape treatment is not infected with bird flu. The test results were then investigated more thoroughly by Veterinary Center wates, Yogyakarta. And it turns out positive results. The herbs were given a positive response to the growth of chickens, had better chicken stamina (rarely sick and low mortality), very low carcass fat, the smell of meat and eggs are not fishy, the yolk color is more orange / score above 7, and the smell of chicken manure (ammonia) around the cage is much less.
Similarly, from the results of trials conducted by Alex riana is a student of SMKN Agriculture Kab. Brass. From the test results try to the chickens are given herbal medicine results obtained the following results:
Table 1. Differences in the productivity of chickens given herbs and without herbal medicine with a maintenance period of 32 days